### Tamil Units of Measurements (அளவீட்டு தமிழ் அலகுகள்)

Measurements in ancient Tamil land were of seven kinds. They were number counts, balance weights, fluid volumes, grain volumes, length, time and the likeness. Ancient tamils were used only mind-calculation for their daily necessaries. Their life is mixed up with calculation for everything. They have enough tables of units for all kind such as weighing, counting, measuring, etc.,. which is similar to the Indus Valley Civilization. They have fractional tables which includes divisor of 2, 5, 8 & etc.,.

The Tamil peoples are using still their basic unit of distance measurement called muzham to measure the length of jasmine garland. Ancient tamils also used muzhakkuchi (scale/tape) which is the basic measuring instrument to build a temple or other building. One of the temple which used muzhakkuchi is Tanjore Big Temple from Tamil Nadu, India.

## UNITS OF TIME IN ANCIENT TAMIL HISTORY

• 1 kuzhi(kuRRuzhi) = குழி (குற்றுழி)= 6.66 millisecond-the time taken by the Pleiades stars(aRumin) to glitter once.
• 12(base 8) or 10 kuzhigaL= 1 miy= 66.6666 millisecond-the time taken by the young human eyes to flap once.
• 2 kaNNimaigaL (கண்ணிமைகள்)= 1 kainodi (கைநொடி)= 0.125 second
• 2 kainodi= 1 maatthirai (மாத்திரை) = 0.25 second
• 6(base 8) or 6 miygaL= 1 siRRuzhi(nodi) சிற்றுழி (நொடி)= 0.40 second-the time taken for a bubble (created by blowing air through a bamboo tube into a vessel 1 saaN high, full of water) to travel a distance of one saaN (சாண்).
• 2 maatthiraigaL= 1 kuru (குறு) = 0.50 second
• 2(base 8) or 2 nodigaL= 1 vinaadi வினாடி = 0.80 second-the time for the adult human heart to beat once
• 212 nodigaL= 2 kuru= 1 uyir உயிர் = 1 second
• 5 nodigaL= 2 uyir= 1 saNigam சாணிகம் = 1/2 aNu அணு = 2 seconds
• 12(base 8) or 10 nodigaL= 1 aNu= 4 seconds
• 6(base 8) or 6 aNukkaL= 12 saNigam= 1 thuLi துளி = 1 naazhigai-vinaadi நாழிகை வினாடி = 24 seconds
• 12(base 8) or 10 thuLigaL= 1 kaNam கணம் = 4 minutes
• 6(base 8) or 6 kaNangaL= 1 naazhigai= 24 minutes
• 12(base 8) or 10 naazhigaigaL= 4 saamam சாமம் = 1 siRupozhuthu சிறுபொழுது = 240 minutes= 4 hours
• 6(base 8) or 6 siRu-pozhuthugaL= 1 naaL நாள் (1 day)= 24 hours
• 7 naaTkaL= 1 kizhamai கிழமை (1 week)
• 15 naaTkaL= 1 azhuvam அழுவம் (1 fortnight )
• 29.5 naaTkaL= 1 thingaL திங்கள் (1 lunar month)
• 2 thingaL= 1 perum-pozhuthu பெரும்பொழுது (1 season)
• 6 perum-pozhuthugaL= 1 AaNdu ஆண்டு (1 year)
• 64 aaNdugaL= 1 vattam வட்டம் (1 cycle)
• 4096(=8^4) AaNdugaL= 1 Oozhi ஊழி (1 epoch)

## AREA MEASUREMENT

• 1 Marakkal vaedaipadu (seeds required for planting rice) = 8 cents
• 12.5 Marakkal vaedaipadu = 100 cents (one acre)

Area calculation and Measurement Chart
• 1 hectare = 2 acre 47 cent
• 1 hectare = 10,000 sq.m.
• 1 acre = 0.405 hectare
• 1 acre = 4046.82 sq.m.
• 1 acre = 43,560 sq.ft.
• 1 acre = 100 cent = 4840 sq.gejam
• 1 cent = 435.6 sq.ft.
• 1 cent = 40.5 sq.m
• 1 ground = 222.96 sq.m. = 5.5 cent
• 1 ground = 2400 sq.ft.

• 1 kuzhi = 10x10 ft. (although some say that 1 kuzhi is approximately equal to 12x12 ft. i.e., 144 sq.ft.)
• 1 Mā = 100 kuzhi = 10000 sq.ft.
• 1 Kāni = 4 Mā = 40000 sq.ft.
• 1 kāni = 92 cents = 0.92 acre
• 1 kāni = 400 kuzhi = 40000 sq.ft.
• 1 acre = 436 kuzhi
• 1 Veļi = 7 kāni = 6.43 acres = 2.6 hectares
• 1 dismil =2.5 cent

• 1 furlong = 660 feet = 220 kejam
• 1 kilometre = 5 furlong
• 1 link / chain = 0.66 foot = 7.92 inch
• 1 kejam = 9.075 sq.ft.
• 1 mile = 8 furlong
• 1 ares = 1076 sq.ft. = 2.47 cent
• 1 chain = 22 kejam
• 1 furlong = 10 chain
• 1 kejam = 0.9144 metre
• 1 township = 36 sq.mile
• 1 sq.mile = 640 acre
• 1 cent = 48 kejam

### Balance weights

#### Gold weights

• 4 nel edai= 1 kunRimaNi
• 5 paNavedai= 1 kazhanju
• 8 paNavedai= 1 varaaganedai
• 20 paNavedai= 4 kazhanju = 1 kaqhsu
• 80 paNavedai= 16 kazhanju= 4 kaqhsu= 1 palam.
• 1.5 Kazhanji = 8 gram or one pown

#### Goods weights

• 32 kunRimaNi= 1 varaaganedai
• 10 varaaganedai= 1 palam
• 40 palam= 1 veesai
• 1000 palam =1 kaa
• 6 veesai= 1 thulaam
• 8 veesai= 1 maNangu
• 20 maNangu= 1 paaram.

### Grain volume

• 1 kuNam= smallest unit of volume
• 9 kuNam= 1 mummi
• 11 mummi= 1 aNu
• 7 aNu=1 immi
• 7 immi= 1 uminel
• 1 sittigai= 7 uminel
• 360 nel= 1 sevidu
• 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
• 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku
• 2 uzhakku= 1 uri
• 5 marakkaal= 1 paRai
• 80 paRai= 1 karisai
• 21 marakkal = 1 Kottai
• 22 maakaani = 100 gms
padi, = 1800 avarai pods = 12,800 miLagu seeds = 14,400 nel grains = 14,800 payaRu grains = 38,000 arisi grains = 115,200 sesame seeds

### Fluid volume

• 5 sevidu= 1 aazhaakku
• 2 mahani = 1 aazhakku (arai kal padi)
• 2 aazhaakku= 1 uzhakku (Kal padi)
• 2 uzhakku= 1 uri (Arai padi)
• 21 Marakkal = 1 Kottai

### Length

• 10 koaN= 1 nuNNaNu
• 10 nuNNaNU= 1 aNu(atom)
• 8 aNu= 1 kathirtthugaL
• 8 kathirtthugaL= 1 thusumbu
• 8 thusumbu= 1 mayirnuni
• 8 mayirnuni= 1 nuNmaNal
• 8 eL= 1 nel
• 8 nel= 1 viral= 8^8 aNu(atom)= 1.9444 centimetre
• 12 viral= 1 saaN= 100 immi= 23.3333 centimetre
• saaN= 1 muzham= 46.6666 centimetre
• 2 muzham= 1 kajam
• 4 muzham= 1 paagam
• 625 paagam= 1 kaadham= 5000 saaN= 1166.66 metres= 1.167 kilometre

## LIKENESS (SAARTTHAL)

Likeness has attributes of tone, sound, colour and shape for comparison of a given substance with a known standard.

## WHOLE NUMBERS

• 1= onRu
• 10= patthu
• 100= nooRu
• 1000= aayiram
• 10,000= pathaayiram
• 100,000= nooRaayiram
• 1000,000= meiyiram
• 10^9= thoLLunn
• 10^12= eegiyam
• 10^15= neLai
• 10^18= iLanji
• 10^20= veLLam
• 10^21= aambal
Tamil texts elaborate the following version:
• 1 = ONDRU -one
• 10 = PATHU -ten
• 100 = NOORU-hundred
• 1,000 = AAYIRAM-thousand
• 10,000 = PATHAAYIRAM -ten thousand
• 100,000 = LATCHAM-hundred thousand
• 1,000,000 = PATHU LATCHAM - one million
• 10,000,000 = KODI-ten million
• 100,000,000 = ARPUTHAM-hundred million
• 1,000,000,000 = NIGARPUTHAM- one billion
• 10,000,000,000 = KUMBAM-ten billion
• 100,000,000,000 = KANAM-hundred billion
• 1,000,000,000,000 = KARPAM-one trillion
• 10,000,000,000,000 = NIKARPAM -ten trillion
• 100,000,000,000,000 = PATHUMAM -hundred trillion
• 10,000,000,000,000,000 = VELLAM -ten quadrillion
• 100,000,000,000,000,000 = ANNIYAM -
• 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 = ARTTAM -
• 10,000,000,000,000,000,000 = PARARTTAM -
• 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 = POORIYAM -
• 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MUKKODI -
• 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = MAHAYUGAM -

## FRACTIONS

• 1= onRu
• 3/4= mukkaal
• 1/2= arai
• 1/4= kaal
• 1/5= naalumaa
• 3/16= moonRu veesam
• 3/20= moonRumaa
• 1/8= araikkaal
• 1/10= irumaa
• 1/16= maakaaNi (veesam)
• 1/20= orumaa
• 3/64= mukkaal veesam
• 3/80= mukkaaN
• 1/32= araiveesam
• 1/40 araimaa
• 1/64= kaal veesam
• 1/80= kaaNi
• 3/320= araikkaaNi munthiri
• 1/160= araikkaaNi
• 1/320= munthiri
• 1/102,400= keezh munthiri
• 1/2,150,400= immi
• 1/23,654,400= mummi
• 1/165,580,800= aNu
• 1/1,490,227,200= kuNam
• 1/7,451,136,000= pantham
• 1/44,706,816,000= paagam
• 1/312,947,712,000= vintham
• 1/5,320,111,104,000= naagavintham
• 1/74,481,555,456,000= sinthai
• 1/1,489,631,109,120,000= kathirmunai
• 1/59,585,244,364,800,000= kuralvaLaippidi
• 1/3,575,114,661,888,000,000= veLLam
• 1/357,511,466,188,800,000,000= nuNNmaNl
• 1/2,323,824,530,227,200,000,000= thaertthugaL

## CURRENCY

• 1 pal (wooden discs/sea shellots)= (approximately) 0.9 grain
• 8 (or 10 base 8) paRkaL =1 senkaaNi (copper/bronze) = 7.2 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 10 base 10 paRkal =9 grains)
• 1/4 senkaaNi =1 kaalkaaNi (copper) =1.8 grains(misinterpretted by Roman accounts as 2.25 grains)
• 64 (or 100 base 8) paRkaL = 1 KaaNap-pon a.k.a. Kaasu panam(gold) = 57.6 grains
• 1 Roman dinarium was traded on par with 2 KaaNappon plus 1 SenkaaNi(=124 grains).
• 18 Ana = 2.5 Rupee, 16 Ana = 1 Rupee, 1 Ana = 3 Thuttu, 1/4 Ana = 3/4 (mukkal) thuttu